«Short-range radars and their applications in medicine»
Bauman Moscow State Technical University
Conference hall of the Educational and Laboratory Building (3rd Floor)
Moscow, Rubtsovskaya nab., 2/18
16-18 October 2017
International school for young researcher:
|3rd Floor Foyer||
|Welcome speech, First Vice Rector – Vice Rector for Research of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, D.Sc., Prof. Vladimir Zimin|
Microwave imaging for medical diagnosis, monitoring and follow-up, Dr. Lorenzo Crocco, Institute for the Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, Italy
The application of microwave imaging technologies for medical diagnostics is an emerging topic within the electromagnetic engineering community and is now gaining an increasing interest by clinicians. As a matter of fact, microwave imaging is a very appealing tool due to its intrinsic safety, which descends from the non-ionizing nature of microwaves and the low required power. Moreover, the same hardware used in telecommunications is exploited, so that this medical imaging modality is inherently low cost, thus being sustainable for public healthcare systems. The lecture will provide an introductory overview of the physical and mathematical foundations of microwave medical imaging, address the challenges that have to be faced in exploiting this technology and then present recent results achieved at the Medical Electromagnetics (MeDeM) Laboratory at IREA-CNR concerned with some promising applications in monitoring cerebrovascular diseases, tumor diagnosis and image-guided treatment.
|Conference Hall||Electromagnetic quasi-static tomography for medicine, member of Russian Academy of Science, Prof. Vladimir Cherepenin, Dr. Alexander Korjenevsky, V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics Russian Academy of Science, Russia||14:00-15:00|
Microwave brain imaging, Dr. Andreas Fhager, Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
In stroke health care today, a great challenge is to deliver treatment to the patients rapidly and soon after the occurrence of the stroke. Earlier treatment increases the likelihood of a successful treatment result and that the patient recovers well. The inherent challenge in reaching this goal is that approximately 85% of all strokes are ischemic (blood clot induced) and 15% hemorrhagic (bleeding) strokes. Thrombolysis (blood clot resolving medication), has been shown to significantly improve the outcome from ischemic stroke, if given within four and a half hours from the onset of the stroke. Giving thrombolysis to a patient with hemorrhagic stroke must be avoided; it would worsen the bleeding and could be directly fatal. Unfortunately, less than 5% of the patients with a clot-induced stroke, who could benefit from thrombolytic treatment, are presently receiving it in time. The reason is at least partly due to the limited time windows for treatment, and delays in the diagnosis of the stroke. Thus a more rapid procedure between occurrence of stroke and diagnosis than today is very much needed. Microwave techniques have great potential in solving this clinical challenge. First, microwaves have the potential to detect the dielectric changes caused by a bleeding or the lack of circulation in part of the brain caused by a clot. Second, portable microwave systems could also be built for use in the pre-hospital field to facilitate early diagnosis and potentially also earlier treatment. In this presentation, our work with designing and building a microwave stroke detection system is described and results from our clinical trials are presented.
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||16:00-16:15|
|Conference Hall||Radars in Medicine, Dr. Denis Okhotnikov, Head of Analog and Digital Radio Electronics Systems Department, Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia||16:15-17:15|
|Conference Hall||Round table discussion||17:15-18:00|
|Conference Hall||Bioradar for vital signs detection and characterization, Dr. Francesco Soldovieri, Institute for the Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, Italy||10:00-11:00|
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||11:00-11:15|
Peculiarities of multichannel microwave radiothermographs usage for functional studies of the brain,
Prof. Vladimir Kublanov,
Head of Research Medical and Biological Engineering Center of High Technologies, Ural Federal University, Russia
The report considers the specifics of the microwave radiometers used for brain functional studies. Measurements errors of the body radio brightness temperature depend on the matching of radiometer’s antenna and biological tissue, as well as on other destabilizing factors in the formation of the thermodynamic equilibrium of the system ‘body - the input circuit of the microwave radiometer – standard samples of thermal radiation’. It was shown that "noising" of antenna by a special controlled source of noise, which provides thermodynamic equilibrium at the boundaries of this system, ensures the invariance of the measurements. Evidence base is presented that allows to interpret the fluctuations of the brain microwave radiation as changes in certain physical constants. Fluctuations in the frequency range from 0.15 to 0.025 Hz mainly reflect the liquid transport dynamics in the intercellular and intracellular spaces of the brain tissues. And fluctuations in the frequency range less than 0.025 Hz reflect thermodynamic changes in tissues. This conclusion refers to microwave radiation in the frequency band less than 850 MHz. In the report phenomenological models of the microwave radiation and thermodynamic processes in brain tissues were analyzed. Experimental data was obtained by means of the Radiophysical complex MRTHR.
Dielectric properties of biological tissue, Prof. Charles V Sammut, full Professor and Head of the Department of Physics,
Dean of the Faculty of Science and Head of the Electromagnetics Research Group (EMRG), the University of Malta, Malta
This talk discusses the importance of dielectric properties in consideration of how electromagnetic fields interact with body tissue, the gaps in knowledge that arise from the scarcity of reliable in-vivo measurements as a function of frequency and temperature, and the current state of the art in methods of measurement. Recent advancements in the use of ex-vivo tissue measurements to obtain quasi in-vivo dielectric properties will be discussed as well as measurement uncertainties and the consequence of these in medical application design and procedures. Part of the presentation will focus on the ongoing work in the Electromagnetics Research Group at the Department of Physics, University of Malta and will include some preliminary results on the dielectric properties of blood.
Medical Applications of Microwave Technologies in Medicine and Biology, Prof. Jan Vrba, department
of EM Field, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic
Our presentation will be focused on recent Czech research activities in the area of applications of microwaves in medicine and biology. It will deal with description of microwave technologies in thermotherapy, especially oriented on cancer treatment. Projects on new type hyperthermia applicators (e.g. based on MTM technology, etc.) will be mentioned. Further perspective of microwave methods for medical diagnostics will be described, namely project on Microwave Differential Tomography and project oriented on UWB radar system (both with potential for medical diagnostics and for non-invasive temperature measurement as well) will be mentioned. Last but not least, examples of research of biological effects of EM fields (both thermal and non-thermal) will be presented. We will underline international cooperation of Czech researchers with experts from other countries.
|Conference Hall||Peculiarities of multichannel microwave radiothermographs usage for functional studies of the brain, D. Sc. Sergey Gerus, Prof. Valeriy Dementienko, Neirocom Ltd., Russia||15:15-16:15|
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||16:15-16:30|
Bioradiolocation and its Applications, member of Russian Academy of Science, Prof. Alexander Bugaev, Dr. Sergey Ivashov, Head of Remote Sensing Laboratory, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia
Bioradiolocation is a method for the remote detection and diagnostics of biological objects by means of radar, even behind optically opaque obstacles and in conditions of bad visibility. Devices related to this method are called bioradars. This method is based on the reflected signal modulation caused by movements of the human body and internal organs. While the examinee maintains a calm state (e.g. is sleeping or sitting in a fixed pose) modulation of the bioradar signal is caused mainly by respiratory movements (0.2-0.5 Hz) and heart and superficial arteries pulsations (0.7-1.5 Hz). The amplitude of thorax surface displacement caused by respiratory muscles contractions is about 1 cm, while the same parameter for heart beating is only a few mm. There is also possibility to record the movement of speech man's bodies (or articulation): tongue, lips, throat and thorax. The bioradar that capable remotely detection and performing diagnostics of state of a human being even behind obstacles and in conditions of bad visibility could be used for the manifold applications. The potential consumers of the radar are: rescue services, antiterrorist detachments and law-enforcement bodies. It is possible also to use this device in medicine. The report is restricted by experiments in which were used monochromatic continuous-wave bioradar. The recorded oscillograms and their frequency spectrums for heartbeat, respiration and articulation of a man, which is taking place behind a wall, are presented. In second part of the talk, a simplest theory of monochromatic bioradar and effects that accompany this device is presented. In final part of the report the possible applications of bioradiocation are described.
|Conference Hall||Round table discussion||17:13-18:00|
Radars in fall detection of elderlies, Non-contact methods in animal studies, Dr. Lesya Anishchenko, Senior Research Fellow of Remote Sensing Laboratory, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia
The elderly population of the world has been continuously increasing. In Russia, more than 20 % of citizens have already celebrated their sixtieth birthday. The same is the situation in the majority of countries, which is a challenge for the present society. The aging process is accompanied by degradation of many systems and organs of the body, which impairs the daily quality of life and gradually increases the risk of fall. The latter significantly affects morbidity and quality of life as well as health care costs among the aging population. One of the factors influencing the severity of fall consequences in elderly is the amount of time spent lying on the floor or ground waiting for help. The most crucial are the situations after falling down when the elderly person is injured and cannot call for help. The less time is spent waiting for the help the more successful recovery and returning to the natural life rhythm are. Therefore, in recent years, more and more scientists have been paying attention to question of developing effective fall detection system and methods. There are many commercially available wearable devices for motion activity tracking and fall detection based on movement sensors (e.g., accelerometers and gyroscopes). However, it should be noted that wearable devices are not always comfortable to use, due to the memory impairment the user might forget to put it on, which is quite common situation. Moreover, such devices have a significant false-positive rate. Current approaches for remote fall detection are based on video cameras technologies including depth sensors for which walls and fabrics became optically opaque obstacle, and they are sensitive to lighting conditions. However privacy issues do not allow to use such systems to watch over a bathroom zone, where the chance to fall is high. The lecture deals with application of Doppler radars as fall detectors. The pros and cons of this approach are discussed.
The lecture material summarizes the results of investigations into the applications of short range radar and thermal cameras in animal studies. They provide a wide range of possibilities for remote and non-contact monitoring of the physiological condition of laboratory animals. In particular, the material provides information on the technical characteristics of bioradars designed at Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU), Russia, and on experiments using these radars. The results of experiments demonstrate that bioradars of BioRASCAN type may be used for remote measurements of respiration and movement patterns of rodents. In addition, bioradar-assisted experiments for monitoring sleep-wake cycles of rats are described. The results prove that bioradiolocation allows accurate estimation of respiratory pattern characteristics of rodents, and distinguishing between different sleep stages.
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||11:00-11:15|
|Conference Hall||The use of short-range radars in the detection of people behind obstacles and in remote monitoring of their respiratory and cardiac activity, Dr. Anatoliy Bazhanov, Special design bureau of V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics Russian Academy of Science, Russia||11:15-12:15|
Sparse Microwave Imaging Applied for Breast and Brain Monitoring, Dr. Marija Stevanovic, Associate Professor, University of Belgrade, Serbia
In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in microwave medical imaging. Compared to the conventional technologies, the main advantages of microwave imaging systems are their portability, low-cost, and non-ionizing radiation. The majority of clinical applications have focused on breast imaging, but lately the efforts have been extended to other modalities such as bone and brain imaging. Numerous techniques have been proposed for this purpose. Some examples are the time-domain beamforming, the conjugate gradient approach, Gauss-Newton optimization etc.
In this presentation, we will consider the application of the compressive sensing for the three-dimensional breast-cancer and brain tumor localization. Compressive sensing techniques (sparse imaging) are known to yield clean and focused images with suppressed artifacts. These techniques are particularly suitable for situations in which targets occupy only a small part of the observed domain. Typically, this is the case in differential microwave imaging, where the goal is to locate small changes between consecutive measurements instead of retrieving the permittivity of the whole investigated domain. Examples of differential microwave imaging apparatuses are the wearable breast-cancer detection system and the stroke-finder system.
In the development of the electromagnetic model, we will assume that variations the tissue parameters between two measurements are small in order to linearize the scattering equation. Assuming that some prior-knowledge of the breast and brain tissue is available, we will study models in which the trans-polarization is fully taken into account. By considering various array configurations, we will also investigate the robustness of the algorithm to the errors in the electromagnetic parameters of the tissue.
|Conference Hall||Functional activity of biological tissues investigation by near-infrared spectroscopy, Prof. Larisa Safonova, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia||14:15-15:15|
Medical Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Dr. Raquel Cruz Conceicao,
University of Lisbon, Portugal
Over the last two decades, Microwave Imaging (MWI) has been investigated as a novel imaging and diagnostics technique for detection of breast cancer. A number of early small-scale clinical experiments have clearly illustrated the potential of the technology, while also revealing some significant remaining challenges. The talk will comprise the description of radar based methods to identify the presence and location of significant dielectric scatterers within the breast. Apart from using reflected microwave energy to reconstruct images of the breast, the tumour reflections (or Radar Target Signatures) may contain additional information on the shape and size of the tumour. This information could potentially be used for tumour classification. Numerical and physical models, which can be used to realistically mimic the size, shape and growth patterns of breast tumours in electromagnetic numerical models, are presented. Next, a range of tumour classification algorithms based on the Radar Target Signatures of tumours is presented.
|3rd Floor Foyer||Coffee Break||16:15-16:30|
Bioradiolocation-based sleep structure estimation, Dr. Alexander Tataraidze,
Junior Research Fellow of Remote Sensing Laboratory, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia
This lecture will review methods for the estimation of sleep-wake cycle and sleep structure. Analysis of physiological signals and methods for their registration with the aim of sleep monitoring will be presented. The possibility of sleep structure estimation by means of bioradiolocation monitoring will be shown. Main steps of algorithm development for sleep stage classification will be presented.
|Conference Hall||Method for reconstructing microwave images of breast, Ms. Irina Alborova, Junior Research Fellow of Remote Sensing Laboratory, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia||17:00-17:30|
|Conference Hall||Ceremonial Closing||17:30-17:45|